Several countries have taken advantage of this option, regarding citizens of eight countries that joined the Union in May 2004, namely the Czech Republic, Estonia, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia. Sweden and Ireland, have opened up their labour markets from the very start; and Great Britain only required the simple registration of employees. In 2006 Finland, Greece, Spain, Portugal and Italy, in 2007 Luxembourg and the Netherlands, in 2008 France, and in 2009 Belgium and Denmark lifted the restrictions.
Only two Member States – Austria and Germany – maintained the restriction for the longest permissible term, until 30 April 2011, claiming that the authorisation of free employment would cause major labour market disorders. Also, despite the general restrictions, both Austria and Germany were allowed to, under bilateral agreements, the employment of a certain number of citizens coming from the newly accessed countries. Owing to such agreements, approximately 28,000 Hungarian citizens worked in Austria and about 13,000 in Germany from the beginning of 2011. Also, states were already allowed provide free employment in certain sectors, which was effected by a chronic shortage of labour force.
Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, Switzerland
The single market also comprises of three countries who are not members of the Union, but hold membership in the European Economic Area (EEA). Of these countries, Iceland lifted the restrictions in 2006 and Norway in 2009, while Liechtenstein will be opening its labour market together with Austria and Germany. Switzerland, which is a member neither of the EU nor of the EEA, will terminate it presently used quota system at the end of April; however, it will be entitled to restore the restrictions until 31 May 2014, in justified cases.
None of these countries imposed any restrictions on Cyprus or Malta, who also joined the EU in 2004; nor did the eight other new Member States have restricted employment to citizens coming from the rest of the Member States.
Fears remained unjustified
Some of the older Member States could sense the concerns from the other Member States within the Union, regarding migrants from Eastern Member States, could potentially flood the labour market, bringing down wages and triggering unemployment. This was however proven unfounded. Migration to the West, from countries who joined the Union in 2004, fell way behind the expectations, as the number of migrants actually increased from 900,000 to approximately 1.9 million, between 2003 and 2009. The lowest count of migrants was given by Hungary and the Czech Republic; while most of them had moved from Poland and Lithuania.
The migrants are typically young people working in positions, which requires low to medium level qualification – although in many cases their actual qualifications are higher. According to experiences so far, labour force migration has proven to be temporary in most cases. For example, half of the employees from new Member States, who came after 2004, to Great Britain and Ireland, have already returned home, partly owing to the economic recession.
GDP has increased
According to calculations, the flow of labour force following the enlargement of 2004, has increased the EU’s GDP by 0.11% in the short term, between 2004 and 2007; and this growth is expected to a further rise of 0.2% in the long run. By fulfilling the labour force demands of the host states, workers from new Member States, have significantly contributed to the sustainable economic development. The labour force movement following the enlargement, has not resulted in significant labour market distortions, and its impact on the welfare services and finances of the host countries has been minimal.
In certain Member States, like Poland, the Baltic states and Romania, remittances of foreign workers have significantly contributed to the domestic production of the home countries. In these countries, the migration of the citizens of new Member States have mitigated unemployment, but have also caused a decrease in the number of labour forces in several sectors. It is a further problem, that typically, young people choose to seek employment abroad.
Source: Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union